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Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids

Received: 4 May 2021    Accepted: 20 May 2021    Published: 27 May 2021
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Abstract

The goal of this thesis was to study, determine, and measure Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of fatty acids and lipids. Firstly, the Raman measurement was done using silver substrate where the activation process was achieved by focusing crystals of green laser radiation 5 mW power at 5 minutes on the silver substrate. The Raman measurement again was done using Invia Raman Spectroscopy with 514 nm excitation and objective 100x magnification where the samples to be measured were incubated using RH6G (good signal analyzer). After the incubation process, the samples were rinsed with water and allowed to dry for 5 minutes where ten samples of fatty acids and lipids were measured, recorded, saved and baseline of the spectra’s were corrected using matlab codes and averaged. Secondly the SERS measurement was done by growing silver chloride nanoparticle on the silver substrate where the substrate was dipped in a precursor solution of silver nitrate and sodium chloride in a cyclic process. The photosensitive silver chloride crystals were reduced into silver nanoparticles using laser light from the Invia Raman spectroscopy. The SERS measurement was done by depositing the fatty acids and lipids to be measured on the spot which contains the silver nanoparticle recorded the values, saved and baseline of the spectra’s corrected using MatLab codes and averaged. This thesis work reveals that, the peaks obtained by the Raman and SERS measurement originated from the double bonds which was used to identify saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and lipids from one another. The study reveals that, the Raman measurement occurs at higher concentrations whereas the SERS measurement occurs at lower concentrations. The study reveals that the SERS measurement depends on the nature of the analyte, integration time, shape, size and laser power whereas the Raman measurement depends on the surface area and laser power. Lastly, the study reveals that the 514 nm excitation was negligible to efficiently execute the surface Plasmons of the SERS measurement.

DOI 10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12
Published in Optics (Volume 10, Issue 1, June 2021)
Page(s) 7-22
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Plasmonic, Substrate

References
[1] ATA Scientific. (2020). Spectrometry And Spectroscopy: What’s The Difference? https://www.atascientific.com.au/spectrometry/
[2] Balčytis, A., Nishijima, Y., Krishnamoorthy, S., Kuchmizhak, A., Stoddart, P. R., Petruškevičius, R., & Juodkazis, S. (2018). From fundamental toward applied SERS: shared principles and divergent approaches. Advanced Optical Materials, 6 (16), 1800292.
[3] Beyssac, O. (2020). New trends in Raman spectroscopy: from high-resolution geochemistry to planetary exploration. Elements: An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology, 16 (2), 117-122.
[4] Bwtek, (2015). Spectrometer. http://bwtek.com/spectrometer-part-5-spectral -resolution/ (valid 2015).
[5] Palmer, C. Diffraction Grating Handbook, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997). Camden, J. P., et al., Journal Am Chem Soc (2008).
[6] Caprara, D., Ripanti, F., Capocefalo, A., Ceccarini, M., Petrillo, C., & Postorino, P. (2021). Exploiting SERS sensitivity to monitor DNA aggregation properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 170, 88-93.
[7] Chen, X., Gu, H., Shen, G., Dong, X., & Kang, J. (2010). Spectroscopic study of surface enhanced Raman scattering of caffeine on borohydride-reduced silver colloids. Journal of Molecular Structure, 975 (1-3), 63-68.
[8] E. Amankwa, (2016). Characterization of Designed and Constructed Optical Systems, Texila International Journal of Academic Research.
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[10] Jaculbia, R. B., Imada, H., Miwa, K., Iwasa, T., Takenaka, M., Yang, B.,... & Kim, Y. (2020). Single-molecule resonance Raman effect in a plasmonic nanocavity. Nature nanotechnology, 15 (2), 105-110.
[11] Jeanmaire, D. L, and Van Duyne, R. P., (1977). Journal Electro anal Chem.
[12] Langer, J., Jimenez de Aberasturi, D., Aizpurua, J., Alvarez-Puebla, R. A., Auguié, B., Baumberg, J. J.,... & Liz-Marzán, L. M. (2019). Present and future of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. ACS nano, 14 (1), 28-117.
[13] Liu, F., Song, B., Su, G., Liang, O., Zhan, P., Wang, H.,... & Wang, Z. (2018). Sculpting extreme electromagnetic field enhancement in free space for molecule sensing. Small, 14 (33), 1801146.
[14] Martín-Yerga, D., Pérez-Junquera, A., González-García, M. B., Perales-Rondon, J. V., Heras, A., Colina, A.,... & Fanjul-Bolado, P. (2018). Quantitative Raman spectroelectrochemistry using silver screen-printed electrodes. Electrochimica Acta, 264, 183-190.
[15] Moore, T. J., Moody, A. S., Payne, T. D., Sarabia, G. M., Daniel, A. R., & Sharma, B. (2018). In vitro and in vivo SERS biosensing for disease diagnosis. Biosensors, 8 (2), 46.
[16] Nicole K., Robert D. Simoni and Robert L. Hill, JBC Historical Perspective: Lipid Biochemistry (2010), The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. printed in the USA. http:www.oceanoptics.com/products/benchopticsge.asp.
[17] P. Y. Bruce, Organic Chemistry (4th ed, 2006).
[18] Platt, U. & Stutz, J., (2008). Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[19] Silva, I. (2020). Raman Spectroscopy. Between Making And Knowing: Tools In The History Of Materials Research, 435.
[20] Vahimaa, P., Nuutinen, T., Mtikainen, A., Dniel, S., Kwarkye, K., Amankwa, E., & Andoh, S. (2016). Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). http://www.uef.fi/en/web/photonics/sers.
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  • APA Style

    Eric Amankwa. (2021). Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids. Optics, 10(1), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12

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    ACS Style

    Eric Amankwa. Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids. Optics. 2021, 10(1), 7-22. doi: 10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12

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    AMA Style

    Eric Amankwa. Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids. Optics. 2021;10(1):7-22. doi: 10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12,
      author = {Eric Amankwa},
      title = {Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids},
      journal = {Optics},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7-22},
      doi = {10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.optics.20211001.12},
      abstract = {The goal of this thesis was to study, determine, and measure Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of fatty acids and lipids. Firstly, the Raman measurement was done using silver substrate where the activation process was achieved by focusing crystals of green laser radiation 5 mW power at 5 minutes on the silver substrate. The Raman measurement again was done using Invia Raman Spectroscopy with 514 nm excitation and objective 100x magnification where the samples to be measured were incubated using RH6G (good signal analyzer). After the incubation process, the samples were rinsed with water and allowed to dry for 5 minutes where ten samples of fatty acids and lipids were measured, recorded, saved and baseline of the spectra’s were corrected using matlab codes and averaged. Secondly the SERS measurement was done by growing silver chloride nanoparticle on the silver substrate where the substrate was dipped in a precursor solution of silver nitrate and sodium chloride in a cyclic process. The photosensitive silver chloride crystals were reduced into silver nanoparticles using laser light from the Invia Raman spectroscopy. The SERS measurement was done by depositing the fatty acids and lipids to be measured on the spot which contains the silver nanoparticle recorded the values, saved and baseline of the spectra’s corrected using MatLab codes and averaged. This thesis work reveals that, the peaks obtained by the Raman and SERS measurement originated from the double bonds which was used to identify saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and lipids from one another. The study reveals that, the Raman measurement occurs at higher concentrations whereas the SERS measurement occurs at lower concentrations. The study reveals that the SERS measurement depends on the nature of the analyte, integration time, shape, size and laser power whereas the Raman measurement depends on the surface area and laser power. Lastly, the study reveals that the 514 nm excitation was negligible to efficiently execute the surface Plasmons of the SERS measurement.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Fatty Acids and Lipids
    AU  - Eric Amankwa
    Y1  - 2021/05/27
    PY  - 2021
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12
    T2  - Optics
    JF  - Optics
    JO  - Optics
    SP  - 7
    EP  - 22
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-7810
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.optics.20211001.12
    AB  - The goal of this thesis was to study, determine, and measure Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of fatty acids and lipids. Firstly, the Raman measurement was done using silver substrate where the activation process was achieved by focusing crystals of green laser radiation 5 mW power at 5 minutes on the silver substrate. The Raman measurement again was done using Invia Raman Spectroscopy with 514 nm excitation and objective 100x magnification where the samples to be measured were incubated using RH6G (good signal analyzer). After the incubation process, the samples were rinsed with water and allowed to dry for 5 minutes where ten samples of fatty acids and lipids were measured, recorded, saved and baseline of the spectra’s were corrected using matlab codes and averaged. Secondly the SERS measurement was done by growing silver chloride nanoparticle on the silver substrate where the substrate was dipped in a precursor solution of silver nitrate and sodium chloride in a cyclic process. The photosensitive silver chloride crystals were reduced into silver nanoparticles using laser light from the Invia Raman spectroscopy. The SERS measurement was done by depositing the fatty acids and lipids to be measured on the spot which contains the silver nanoparticle recorded the values, saved and baseline of the spectra’s corrected using MatLab codes and averaged. This thesis work reveals that, the peaks obtained by the Raman and SERS measurement originated from the double bonds which was used to identify saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and lipids from one another. The study reveals that, the Raman measurement occurs at higher concentrations whereas the SERS measurement occurs at lower concentrations. The study reveals that the SERS measurement depends on the nature of the analyte, integration time, shape, size and laser power whereas the Raman measurement depends on the surface area and laser power. Lastly, the study reveals that the 514 nm excitation was negligible to efficiently execute the surface Plasmons of the SERS measurement.
    VL  - 10
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Humanities and Science, Grand Canyon University, Arizona-Phoenix, United States

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